A friend told me about these when I was working in my information visualization design job. These “dazzle ships” were used in war time to confuse the opponent as to where the warship was facing or even how many warships there were. This is a good example of using design for a catered purpose. This is just one ship, but because of the way that it has been painted, it may appear to be 8 or 9 ships just from this angle. This is an example of an optical illusion that is meant to serve a purpose. It gives one perspective on the spectrum of purposes there could be in design or info vis design.
Photo From: http://cdn.thinglink.me/api/image/621400217496846338/1240/10/scaletowidth